Context and Objectives


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European Union and the international community were striving to set a global post-2012 agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The implementation of this agreement should be ensured on a sound scientific knowledge base to which developing countries and/or emerging economies will participate.

The aim (main objective) of this project was to support the developing countries and emerging economies (Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine) in developing and implementing effective adaptation / mitigation policy portfolios with regard to post – 2012 agreement.

The development of this scientific knowledge base, in the aforementioned countries, was achieved by transferring the necessary knowledge to human resources on national level, that were trained accordingly and they got provided with the appropriate research infrastructure and skills, allowing them to self-function in their countries for the development and implementation of the appropriate policy portfolios for adaptation/mitigation actions.

In this framework, the concept of this proposal was the identification, development, transfer, implementation, evaluation and dissemination of the necessary knowledge and of the research needs and gaps that should be overcamed, in order scientists of those countries to be in a position to support their governments and decision makers, in developing and implementing policy portfolios for effective adaptation/mitigation measures.

The aim’s achievement was based on the following work packages, corresponding to the project’s main objectives, Evaluation of available data and information (WP1), Choice and implementation of models (WP2), Scenarios and policy portfolios (WP3), Evaluation of policy portfolios (WP4), Prioritization of research gaps and needs (WP5), Dissemination (WP6).

The overall strategy was based on the Development, Transfer, Evaluation and Implementation of knowledge, towards high quality personnel from the aforementioned countries, while the research needs and gaps were identified and registered. A Steering Committee and a Scientific Committee supervised the quality of knowledge transfered. The knowledge transfer (training) included a combination of tele-teaching and in-site seminar plus the provision of the necessary means (software licenses, etc).

In order to fulfill the aforementioned aim, the following Science & Technology objectives were set: 

1. Evaluation of available data and information: The structuring of any type of climate policy scenarios for developing and/or emerging economies - individually or as a group - through models requires a sound scientific knowledge of data and information. The quality and the quantity of the data, the credibility and affordability of the information are elements that scientists, researchers and policy advisors seek so as to proceed, design and assess different policy options. Through the evaluation of the available data and information coming from the developing countries and/or emerging economies, the project tried to: i) identify and map the existing sources of data and information; ii) evaluate the reliability of both the collecting and the receiving data and information; iii) identify the obstacles in collecting raw data and in producing homogenous types of data as required by international entities working in climate policy issues (IPCC, UNFCCC, UTCE, EEA and others) and iv) establish a standardized procedure for this evaluation regarding developing countries and/or emerging economies. 

2. Usage of appropriate models for developing countries and/or emerging economies: The development of a scenario depends on the model, the initial set of conditions and the reliability of the input data. Different models may provide different and sometimes contradicting outcomes. A careful choice of the most suitable models allowed the development of compatible scenarios and policy portfolios. The project identified the models that could be used, by the participating developing countries and their economies and could be able to produce reliable scenarios. Through a number models considered (ENPEP, LEAP, MARKAL, MESSAGE, MERCI), LEAP was selected, by taking into consideration the available data from the participants countries. Studies, special editions and training mechanisms weree foreseen, so that all participants acquired the same knowledge base in using the selected model for exploring scenarios in climate change policy.

3. Development of scenarios – policy portfolios: Three scenarios (Business-As-Usual, Optimisitc and Pessimistic) were developed for each participating country. Each one of the 36 developed scenarios was a mix of adaptation, mitigation and development policy options, developed according to each participating developing country and economy. Each participant ran the models at which they were trained and developed scenarios including adaptation/mitigation actions, based on the national framework of their country.  

4. Evaluation of policy portfolios: All developed scenarios were evaluated against a set of criteria that reflected the combination of social, economical and environmental requirements. The evaluation aimed to support the implementation of a post-2012 climate change agreement in these countries and economies, by identifying the policy portfolios that lead to effective adaptation/mitigation actions. Based on these evaluation outcomes, the scenarios were corrected accordingly.

5. Prioritization of research gaps and needs: Through each one of the steps of the described knowledge transfer chain, the project identified the research needs and gaps that prevent the exploration of climate change policy scenarios and attemped to link them with EU and international funding programs.  Through the evaluation of available data and information, and policy portfolios, along with conferences and meetings that involved national stakeholders, the project was be able to identify and prioritize them respectively, and concludes with an inventory.

6. Dissemination. The selection of partners allowed the coverage of all types of emerging economies (low income, lower middle income and upper middle income) and provided a wide geographical coverage. Apart from the conventional dissemination procedures (Newsletter, Website, editions, scientific articles, Conference) the hard core of this objective was the involvement and acquaintance with the project’s outcomes of the 12 governments of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) Organization in both national and regional level (Ministerial meetings, working groups, parliamentary meetings, Business council, Ad hoc visits).